Fundamento filosófico da interdisciplinaridade no componente curricular de história no ensino médio: o sujeito em sua historicidade
GOMES, Raimundo Wagner Gonçalves de Medeiros
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Considering that a) teaching, as a pedagogical activity, is configured as a more complex than the common tradition of linear exposition of the theoretical Sciences; b) that the center of the school process is the subject in its formation for citizenship; c) that the teaching-learning process can not dispense with interdisciplinarity as ground; d) that the conduct of the teachinglearning process is based on the contradiction between the solipsism of the subject and the complexity of the real the understanding of the role of the curriculum will become transparent and, its exercise, soberly practicable. Before the question: how does interdisciplinarity, based on the epistemological structure of the subject, contributes to a construction (teaching) of the history discipline in High School? For the elucidation of the question, it is aimed, taking as background the teaching of the discipline of history: 1) to show the structure of the subject in the light of philosophy (subject epistemological) and of historical science (historical subject) mediated by the geography (spatial subject ) and sociology (post-structural subjects) - disciplines present in the curriculum of human sciences of High School; 2) demonstrate the preeminence of interdisciplinarity as an epistemological condition inherent in the teachinglearning; 3) discuss the curriculum as a place of conflict and as a dialectical result between the subject and socially constituted knowledge and as a place of access to the consciousness of his condition and epistemological constitution of author of knowledge. The methodology used to achieve the listed goals is a bibliographical research aimed at clarifying what is the idea of subject; to prove it as the foundation of the discipline of history and that, with understanding of this pre-eminence, the pertinence of the pedagogical role of this curricular component in the achievement of the objectives assigned to High School. To this end, the dialectical-historical method, according to Marx (2001, 2008), is used, since the construction of human consciousness is grounded in its historical-material relations. Thus, together with Heidegger's phenomenological-hermeneutic method (2000), once human actions are directly conditioned to the interpretation of reality and, for this reason, reason, the deeper this interpretation enters into the truth of being, the better apprehension of the world in its truth (contextual, procedural). In this way, it has been found in this research that the state of knowledge in the approach of teaching history, is perceived as neglecting the ontological nature of the man, subject autonomous interpreter, although conditioned, developing exposures that touch the surface of the problem without going into its heart. Thus, it can be concluded that researches aimed at teaching (here, specifically, the teaching of history) can not dispense with a hermeneutics that reveals the ontological conditions that underlie the historical-social context of the subject - the center of the educational process - for understanding the this type of reflection has in the comprehension of the amplitude of the gnosiological spectrum of the student, so that the teaching activity, based on this perception, develop the competences to get the stimulus of creative curiosity in the pedagogical process towards a gnosiological and epistemological necessary for the development of the intellectual autonomy, that is a preamble to ethical autonomy and, consequently, politics in citizen praxis.