Possibilidades de enfoque CTS para o ensino superior de Química: proposta de uma abordagem para ácidos e bases
Nunes, Albino Oliveira
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Scientific education has been passing by redefinitions, contestations and new contributions from the research on science teaching. One contribution is the idea of science and technology literacy, allowing the citizens not only knowing science but also understand aspects on the construction and motivation of scientific and technological research. In accordance with this idea, there is the Science-Technology-Society (STS) studies which, since the 1970s, has been contributing for science teaching and learning according to the comprehension of the relationships with society in the Western countries of the North. In Brazil, this approach began to gain projection from the 1990s when the first essays on the theme were published. Currently, there is a clear influence of this approach on the national curriculum guidelines, especially for the area of Natural Sciences, and also on the textbooks chosen by the High School National Program (Programa Nacional do Ensino Médio). However, there seems to be a gap in relation to the discussion on the specific curricular component seen in college on this approach. Thus, this study aims at adopting the approach STS, face to the preparation of complimentary educational material on acid and bases concepts studied in the course of General Chemistry of the Natural Sciences graduation program. To this end, it was performed a bibliographical research aiming at making the state-of-the-art in in these concepts in specific literature to science teaching. It is divided in two stages: systematic study (with sixteen journals chosen according to Qualis-Capes and an unsystematic study with direct search in databases and references in the papers of the systematic study. The studies had their content analyzed and the categories chosen a priori were the level of education, the acid-base theory adopted, and the strategy/theoretical frame of reference adopted. A second stage aimed at identifying attitudes and beliefs on STS (Science-Technology-Society) and CSE (Chemistry-Society-Environment) of students in the teacher and technologist training course in three diferent institutions: UTFPR, UFRN and IFRN. In this study, it was used two questionnaires, composed of a Likert scale, semantic differential scale and open questions. The quantitative data reliability was estimated through Cronbach’s alpha method, and tha data were treated according to classic statistics, using the mean as the centrality measures, and the mean deviation as dispersion. The qualitative data were treated according to the content analysis with categories taken from the reading of answers. In the third stage, it was analyzed the presence of STS and CSE content in chapters on acid and bases concepts of nine General Chemistry textbooks, frequently used in graduation programs in public institutions of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. The results showed that there are few proposals of acid and bases teaching, and they are generally aimed at High School or at instrumentation for teaching courses, and no course for General Chemistry. The student’s attitudes and beliefs show the presence of a positivist point of view based on the concept of Science and Technology neutrality and the salvation of its mediation. The books analysis showed just a few content on STS and CSE are found in the studied chapters, and they are generally presented disjointedly in relation to the rest of the main text. In the end, as suggestion to solve the absence of proposals STS in General Chemistry books, as well as the student’s positivist attitudes, it was developed some educational material to be used in the course of General Chemistry at College. The material is structured to introduce a historical view of the concepts preparation, present the use of materials, the industrial and technological processes, and social and environmental consequences of this activities.