Diagnóstico de um sistema hidrossanitário em ambiente escolar e elaboração do plano de gestão sustentável de água e esgoto
Nóbrega, Luciana Maria de Lima Silva
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Sustainable water management is important so that its consumption is rational, that is, so that only the amount of water necessary for the main activity is used, reducing waste. It is possible to achieve this feat by following an efficient management plan. In this sense, this research aimed to develop a sustainable water and sewage management plan at the Natal-Central Campus - IFRN, through the development of a diagnosis of its hydrosanitary installations, in which necessary adjustments to be made in the system were identified. To this end, the research presented here was carried out between August 2019 and July 2021, covering periods when the campus was in full operation, as well as after the suspension of classes due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Thus, it was found that the campus has three water supply sources: well 01 (with hydrometer), and CAERN's public water supply network, which is intended for human consumption, such as drinking fountains and cafeteria, for example. About 80% of the water destined for consumption on the campus is supplied by well 01, with an average of 3,916 m³ of water consumed monthly, and 100% of this amount is billed by CAERN as a return to the sewage network. However, the campus has about 20,000 m² of green area, where well 01 is responsible for its irrigation. The entire sanitary system, pipes with their respective diameters, connections and devices were represented in the “as built” elaborated. The dimensioning of the systems was also appreciated, including existing settlement systems, identifying and quantifying the needs for intervention and opportunities for improvement. Such information supported the elaboration of a sustainable water management plan, with the selection of behavioral and technological measures to be implemented, in order to contribute to the reduction of losses, optimization of consumption and environmental education. With the sizing and changes made to the water distribution branches originating from well 01, it was possible to eliminate leak points, identify systems to improve management, eliminate or replace inefficient pipes. The monitoring of the sanitary sewage flow, through measurements carried out in the field, made it possible to negotiate an alternative in the measurement of sewage flow with the concessionaire, which will make the charge for effluent destined for the sewage collection network more fair. In this way, environmental, educational and economic benefits were provided.