Sustentabilidade socioecológica na visão e prática de docentes do ensino fundamental rumo à aprendizagem baseada em problemas
Guedes, Alline Silva do Vale
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Education on socio-ecological sustainability needs to be present in the curriculum and in the teaching practice of basic education in view of the current planetary emergency that we are experiencing. However, it was noticed in the available scientific literature that this approach to sustainability is limited in the curricula and, mainly, in the practices of elementary school teachers. There is a school teaching-learning centered on traditional methodologies, when the use of active methodologies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), could appear as an alternative towards the construction of a more sustainable present and future for all, as the 2030 Agenda points out. This study aimed to analyze the sustainability concepts and approaches of teachers in a public elementary school, located in Natal-RN, aiming at proposing active strategies for teaching-learning processes through PBL. This is a descriptive and qualitative study, also considered as applied because it proposes a didactic guide for teachers. A data collection was carried out with 15 professors of the institution through an online questionnaire via Google Forms. Based on theoretical support, data analysis was performed using Bardin's content analysis technique. The research shows that teaching practice has not critically addressed the socio-ecological sustainability in the classroom, thus requiring the continued education of teachers and/or the proposal of more active and innovative teaching materials. For this study, a didactic training guide on PBL was proposed to the institution's professors, focused on the theme of socio-ecological sustainability, involving the use of an online resource known as WebQuest. For content validation, eight judges, through an online questionnaire via Google Forms, evaluated the didactic guide using five effectiveness components related to the content of the material. To classify the items of the assessment instrument as valid, a Content Validation Index (CVI) of at least 0.80 was considered. The didactic guide showed satisfactory validation evidence (CVI = 0.97). It is concluded that, although there are challenges in implementing the PBL method, teachers were willing to implement socio-ecological sustainability through the use of this active methodology. It is understood that teachers need to be increasingly trained so that they can more dynamically address more sustainable lifestyles in the classroom. The proposed didactic guide can be a support tool for teachers in building a more critical and creative learning on sustainability issues that prioritize the social and ecological dimensions.