Estágio docente como pesquisa e formação de identidade nas licenciaturas de uma instituição de formação de professores no Brasil
Ventura, Francisca Carneiro
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The PhD thesis that is now presented is the result of doctoral course in Educational Sciences, speciality of Pedagogic Supervision. In it, we stand for a teaching practicum based on research activities at school, in the classroom and in the pedagogical practices of teachers; teachers that need to be able of conducting educational interventions aimed at a learning for the exercise of citizenship and the employment world. This is because the practicum, as the main component of the curriculum of the initial training courses, provides the student trainee with knowledge and procedures necessary for the construction of her/his identity. Our general objectives are: to find out the degree of achievement of the practicum model adopted by a Brazilian teacher training institution; to identify facilitating and/or inhibitor factors of the implementation of the proposal; and to understand how this model contributes to the formation of the teacher researcher and his professional identity. The study object is the Teacher Practicum Program implemented in the courses of the Federal Institutes of one Northern State of Brazil, since 2012. It is a research conducted within a qualitative research paradigm by means of a case study - the creation and implementation of the practicum program in a research, critical and reflective perspective.In the study, we present and discuss the epistemological foundations of the program in conjunction with the practices developed during the training; and the perception and the meaning given by the Brazilian educational legislation as well as in the internal regulations of the researched Institute; the discussion is done in connection with the perception of the subjects of this research (five practicum supervisors and forty-one trainee students), obtained by interviews and within practicum reports. The creation and development of the program are analyzed in its relations with the research practices, reflection and professional identity formation. The relevance of this study comes from the reframing of the Practicum practices no longer at a technicity perspective, but critical and reflexive, taking research as a pedagogical principle. We understand that the transition from a technical training to a critical and reflexive practicum, guided by research occurred as a result of the change of the detraditionalization dynamics of a technical perspective of teaching to a teacher-researcher as internalized identity in the theoretical and legal discourse of education. The aspiration that in the practicum, academic knowledge may be lived in an integrated way with the teaching practice of the students trainees as necessary for their teacher researcher professionality, echoes views, claims and old critics over the educational system, the official guidelines and activities of the federal institutions for teacher education in Brazil. Then, it seems that the legal discourse intends to build some kind of response marked by the productive, political and social circumstances that have been redefining education processes. Regarding the results according the main analysis axes of the legal documents - practicum concept; teacher training and being teacher, we found that the documents do not have clearly explained a practicum concept, only presenting principles that are the basis for teacher training with regard to teaching practices. However, it becomes clear a change of concept from being teacher to being educator. This means an expansion of a teacher view beyond teaching to educating, including in the teacher's role the care that requires other knowledge and other actions. From the point of view of the analysis of the interviews and of the statements of the practicum reports, according the lines of analysis research, reflexivity and professional identity, we found in the declarations of the subjects a move away from the technical training of the linear training matrix together with signs of the achievement of the practicum in a teacher researcher perspective, a critical teacher who reflects his/her own practice. But at the same time, they claim for objective conditions for realization of the practicum as proposed in the program. For the xii interviewed individuals, the conceptual basis of the practicum program proposed in 2012 is being implemented, but they still feel the need for the institution to offer more operational support for the development of the practicum activities.