Análise de sustentabilidade da gestão de resíduos sólidos do Município de Parnamirim-RN
Lopes, Giobert Antonio Brito
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Considering the relevance of the study of solid waste to the reality of basic sanitation, this dissertation aims to measure the level of sustainability of solid waste management in the municipality of Parnamirim-RN in the year 2016. To do this, it analyzes parameters that measure, as specific objectives, the potential of commercialization of existing recyclables in the gravimetric composition for the implementation of a selective collection program; the environmental aspect of the landfill area economy with this possible implementation; and the increase in the useful life of this landfill, considering the diversion of the existing recyclables in the conventional collection and in the final disposal, due to a given action. The definition of sustainability indicators considered its applicability and its convergence with the research, leading to the selection of the methodology proposed by Santiago and Dias (2012). The data were obtained, with emphasis on household solid waste (HSW), based on information collected at the Municipal Department of Urban Cleaning (SELIM, in Portuguese); in the Municipal Department of Environment and Urban Development (SEMUR, in Portuguese); in the Tax Office (SEMUT, in Portuguese); in the Secretariat of Planning and Finance (SEPLAF, in Portuguese); in the Municipal Department of Social Assistance (SEMAS, in Portuguese); on the platform available on the city's website, the Transparency Portal; in government agencies related to solid waste management; in federal and municipal legislation; and the State Plan for the Integrated Management of Solid Waste. The analysis of the indicators revealed that the management of municipal solid waste (MSW) presents low sustainability. Based on this analysis and the gravimetric composition, parameters were determined regarding the presence of recyclables in household waste, which showed benefits in the economic and environmental dimensions, as well as possible reflections in the social dimension. The proposal for the implementation of selective collection allows estimating the reduction of waste collection and disposal costs, as well as the reduction of the area and the increase in the useful life of the landfill. The financial savings resulting from this supposed implementation can be used as support to encourage the organization of associations of waste pickers and structures for their operationalization, thus promoting sustainability to the solid waste management of the municipality under study.