Consequências socioeconômicas e ambiental dos parques eólicos para comunidades da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Estadual Ponta do Tubarão
Pontes, Oziel de Medeiros
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The present study aimed to analysis the socioeconomic and environmental consequences of the wind farms installed in the Ponta do Tubarão State Sustainable Development Reserve (RDSEPT), in the communities of Barreiras, Diogo Lopes and Sertãozinho, in the municipality of Macau-RN, and Mangue Seco I, Mangue Seco II and Lagoa Doce, in the municipality of Guamaré-RN. For this, secondary data were used: books, theses, periodicals and simplified and primary reports: photographic records, digital images processing, observations in loco and application of interviews, applied to individuals of Barreiras, Diogo Lopes and Sertãozinho , 3% of the total population) and Mangue Seco I, Mangue Seco II and Lagoa Doce (0.7% of the total population). The results showed negative socioeconomic and environmental products of the wind farms, and the majority of the research public considered bad (36%), regular (32%) and very bad (8%) the degree of importance of the parks, indicating That 56% of respondents opted for the non-importance of wind farms to the community. This discredit is due to the distance between the wind farms and the communities in question. In addition, 76% of the interviewees do not know people who work in wind farms, which evidenced the lack of interest, incentive and participation of public power and wind farms in the construction of public policies, plans and projects that make local jobs viable. Similarly, the survey revealed that there is virtually no absorption of the local labor force by wind farms, just as there is no satisfaction of the majority of people interviewed with the environmental effects of wind farms (53%). Among the environmental consequences of the installation of wind farms for the communities studied are: deforestation (17%), visual pollution and negative impacts on tourism (13%), blockade of people displacement (9%), Wind erosion and interdunate pond landings (4%), reduction of fish volume (4%) and interruption of passage to cattle (2%). Thus, the wind plants intalled in the referred communities and its surroundings created negative economic, social and environmental products.