Diagnóstico dos resíduos sólidos e desperdícios de uma cerâmica vermelha para implementação de técnicas de produção mais limpa
Silva, Robson Garcia da
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Despite the current evidence of sustainability discussions, few scientific studies or environmental and process diagnoses have been produced with regard to the generation of solid waste and the wastage of inputs in the red or structural ceramics industry. This study, therefore, aimed the implementation of cleaner production techniques, sought to diagnose the generation of solid waste and wastage of clay, water, electricity and sawdust powder in the production process of Vilar Produtos Cerâmicos, located in Tangará, Rio Grande do Norte, based on the methodology of implementation of cleaner production techniques of the National Cleaner Production Centres from SENAI. The selected method, involving steps such as management commitment, the identification of barriers, the search for solutions, the development of a production flowchart and the environmental and process diagnosis, included revisions of national and international literature, documentary research and case study. In this context, the study included technical visits, observations and analysis of inputs in the company (clay, water, electricity and sawdust); outputs (blocks produced accordingly, generation of solid waste and wastage of inputs); and of feedback (reuses of solid waste) of the productive process. The results showed a situation of generation of solid waste and wastages, mainly in the processes of extrusion, cutting, drying and burning. 11.626t of solid waste (or 92.74% of the total waste) were generated and, consequently, 974.4l of residual water (or 87.12% of the total wastewater). In this situation, it was verified that the main wastages were of clay, water and electric energy, due to the inefficiency in the consumption of these inputs, causing adverse impacts to the company and to the environment. It was concluded, therefore, that the productive process, even with the technological innovations of the company, was inefficient in the consumption of clay, water and energy, since solid waste and wastages, that could be reduced, were generated too much. On the other hand, the implementation of cleaner production techniques can minimize waste generation and wastage, increasing the efficiency of input use and improving production activities, translating into more sustainable socio-economic and environmental benefits for those who make up the company and society.